Fatty liver disease in pregnancy

Fatty liver disease in pregnancy is a medical emergency with severe morbidity and mortality, including death in both the mother and the fetus.

Fatty liver disease in pregnancy
Fatty liver disease in pregnancy


Liver disease is a silent killer. No human can understand it. It was caught only while doing an ultrasonogram. Initially, some fat deposits around the liver, with no other symptoms.

Then gradually, inflammation started there. During this time, the liver is damaged. Initially, the body loses energy and feels weak. Loss of appetite occurs. Apart from this, jaundice can occur. Different parts of the body, eyes, face, and hands can be yellow.

If this condition continues for a long time, water may accumulate on the hands and feet. Sometimes there is vomiting of blood. If left untreated, it can turn into liver cancer.

The liver becomes enlarged, and patients become emaciated or very weak. During this time, the patient’s life expectancy decreases rapidly.

Our liver usually contains 3-4 pounds of fat. Liver cells also have some fat around them. If this fat content exceeds 10%, the condition is known as fatty liver.

Around 25-30 percent of people worldwide suffer from fatty liver problems. As a result, preventing fatty liver is more important than treating it. There is no substitute for awareness.

In Western civilization, alcohol is the major cause of obesity. Apart from this, fat is formed for many reasons. Fatty liver is more common in overweight, diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. Apart from this, fatty liver is caused due to consumption of various drugs or other diseases.

Fatty liver disease in pregnancy is a very uncommon pregnancy complication, with an estimated frequency of 5 occurrences per 100,000 pregnancies. It commonly manifests in late pregnancy and can cause maternal or fetal difficulties.

Why is liver disease occur during pregnancy?

Liver disease in pregnant women usually occurs in three ways. If this disease is not treated on time, it can be a cause of death for the mother and the child. This disease can occur in three ways in the case of pregnant mothers. One could be some liver disease caused by pregnancy. Another is if one has pre-existing liver disease and if she is pregnant. And if liver disease occurs during this time due to any virus.

Fatty liver disease in pregnancy can be difficult to diagnose early since it has characteristics with other frequent disorders, including pre-eclampsia, viral hepatitis, and cholestasis of pregnancy.

Fatty liver disease in pregnancy is an uncommon, possibly catastrophic condition that arises during the third trimester or early postpartum period. Although the specific cause of this condition is uncertain, it has been related to an aberration in embryonic fatty acid metabolism.

A comprehensive history and physical examination, along with appropriate laboratory and imaging data, are frequently enough to make the diagnosis, and a liver biopsy is rarely required. Supportive care and a timely birth are critical for the best maternal-fetal outcomes.

Mild to moderate fatty liver disease is characterized by normal liver function, absence of typical symptoms, and absence of consequences. Women with fatty liver during pregnancy will have little influence on the pregnancy at that time. Postpartum women, on the other hand, must positively restrict their lifestyles.

Pay attention to regular health checks to spot problems quickly and take steps to manage and maintain health. Mother and child, It is a substantial health risk in the event of severe fatty liver or acute fatty liver. The condition frequently manifests itself in pregnant women during the latter three months of their pregnancy, and the worst-case scenario can result in death.

Causes of liver disease in pregnancy

Viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cirrhosis are all acute and chronic types of primary hepatic diseases observed in pregnancy.

There are specific concerns for the deployment of diagnostic techniques and pharmacologic therapy for liver disease that develops during pregnancy due to the requirement to address both maternal and fetal health.

Liver disease of pregnancy can manifest as a pregnancy-specific pathology or as an acute or chronic liver disease that occurs coincidentally during pregnancy.

Pregnancy-specific hepatic illnesses include hyperemesis gravidarum, preeclampsia/eclampsia, the syndrome of hemolysis, high liver enzymes, low platelets, intrahepatic cholestasis, and acute fatty liver.

The pathophysiology and manifestation of liver disease in pregnancy have been researched, and several diagnostic and prognostic techniques have been developed to determine noninvasive ways of diagnosing and staging such diseases.

In addition, studies are being conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of existing and new medicinal medicines that were previously assumed to be incompatible with pregnancy. This review will look at recent developments in the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of numerous liver diseases during pregnancy.

What is Fatty Liver disease in pregnancy?

Pregnant women who are pregnant for the first time, pregnant with multiples, or pregnant women with a BMI less than 20 are the most vulnerable to fatty liver during pregnancy. Fatty liver during pregnancy is most common between 32 and 38 weeks.

What is fatty liver disease in pregnancy? Fatty liver disease in pregnancy is an obstetric emergency defined by maternal liver dysfunction and/or failure, which can result in maternal and fetal problems, including death. Prompt birth and supportive maternal care are critical for the mother’s healthy recovery.

It is yet unknown what causes acute fatty liver in pregnancy. A woman with one or more of these disorders will have a deficit in the enzyme that catalyzes the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids in the newborn, resulting in hypoglycemia, coma, and abnormal liver enzyme levels. Death in children that occurs often or unexpectedly with no known cause

Nutrition is essential for pregnant women with fatty livers, according to experts. Pregnant women should boost fiber from vegetables and fruits, restrict animal fat, add vegetable fats, and avoid stimulants to reduce their risk of illness or problems.

It should be highlighted, however, that pregnant women should not abstain excessively in order to prevent disrupting the normal growth of the fetus.

Liver disease during pregnancy symptoms

Fatigue, nausea/vomiting, headache, epigastric discomfort, and loss of appetite are common symptoms in pregnant women with fatty liver disease. Jaundice, temporary ascites, and even liver failure might result from the symptoms.

There is no particular treatment for acute fatty liver disease in pregnant women at the moment. Thus pregnant women should have frequent check-ups and periodic ultrasounds as directed.

Regular check-ups can assist doctors in detecting illness signs early and initiating suitable and prompt treatment procedures, hence preventing potentially severe consequences. If the condition is not treated in time, it will worsen and endanger both the mother and the fetus.


The key aspects of acute fatty liver disease of pregnancy management include early diagnosis, quick delivery, and extensive medical assistance from a multidisciplinary medical team in an intensive care environment. To prevent delays in diagnosis, a high level of clinical suspicion is required.

The only permanent therapy for acute fatty liver disease in pregnancy is delivery. If feasible, vaginal birth is induced; however, if the maternal or fetal state does not allow for this, operational delivery must be performed as soon as safely possible.

The mother’s condition should be stable, with the airway, blood pressure, blood glucose, electrolytes, and clotting factors evaluated and kept normal. In addition to the prenatal examination, mental status assessment is required.